Ben

MY NAME is Benjamin and I work in the AM Industy for 6 years.

The power of 3D Printing and automated design for jigs & fixtures

AMPOWER Academy 3D Printing and automated design for jigs & fixtures Trinckle, Audi Sport, Deutsche Bahn Tooling, jigs & fixtures 12.06.2024 Share article Customer Cases Audi Sport: Designing fixtures in minutes for 3D printing Deutsche Bahn – Scaling 3D printing usage with fixturemate The Power of 3D Printing and Automated Design for jigs & fixtures

The power of 3D Printing and automated design for jigs & fixtures Read More »

AMEXCI – Shanwei Guo

“At AMEXCI we always strive to provide realistic, relevant, and up-to-date training content to our shareholders and customers during our in-person trainings. AMPOWER’s eLearning platform is the perfect complement to this – allowing our participants to access information in bite-sized, digestible pieces at their own pace.” Shanwei Guo Innovation Manager, AMEXCI

AMEXCI – Shanwei Guo Read More »

3D printing at Deutsche Bahn

AMPOWER Academy 3D printing at Deutsche Bahn Deutsche Bahn Railway Berlin, Germany 26.09.2023 Share article Frankfurt (Main) Hbf – Einfahrt ICE 3 / Ausfahrt RE Image Courtesy: Deutsche Bahn Top 3 Learnings Get engaged – internally and externally Proof the concepts and implement – impress lovers and doubters Shape a powerful team – you will

3D printing at Deutsche Bahn Read More »

3D printing at Eaton Aerospace

AMPOWER Academy 3D printing at Eaton Aerospace Fueling progress: How Eaton Aerospace’s dedication to 3D Printing elevated aircraft performance Eaton Aerospace 23. August 2023 Share article Top 3 Learnings Success does not come overnight and without involving everyone along the whole value chain. A long-term value proposition focused vision and strategy helps the company to

3D printing at Eaton Aerospace Read More »

3D Printing in TRUMPF machines

AMPOWER Academy 3D Printing in TRUMPF machines Collaborative Efforts, Expertise, and Know-How Lead to Thriving 3D Printing Applications in TRUMPF Machines Trumpf Special Machinery Ditzingen, Germany 23. August 2023 Share article Top 3 Learnings All applications that guide fluids have a high potential for success. Complexity is free but not free of charge. 3D Printing

3D Printing in TRUMPF machines Read More »

3D Printing at Atlas Copco

How 3D Printing can solve some of the big challenges of the heavy machinery industry Atlas Copco Compressor Technique is part of Atlas Copco Group and is a leading provider of compressed air solutions: industrial compressors,  gas and process compressors and expanders, air and gas treatment equipment, and air management  systems. Established in 1873 in Stockholm,

3D Printing at Atlas Copco Read More »

Leveraging 3D Printing at BOBST

AMPOWER Academy Leveraging 3D Printing at BOBST Innovative Approach, Internal Collaboration, and Supplier Selection Propel the World’s Leading Packaging Machine Manufacturer Towards 3D Printing Success. Bobst Packaging Industry Lausanne, Switzerland 23. August 2023 Share article Top 3 Learnings Why the world’s leading packaging machine manufacturer uses 3D Printing BOBST Mex SA is one of the

Leveraging 3D Printing at BOBST Read More »

Sinter-based AM technologies and process chain

Sinter-based AM - a technology overview

Many different printing technologies - one sintering process

The sinter-based AM (SBAM) technologies have, as the name suggests, the sintering process in common. In this process, the printed green part is consolidated into a dense part and receives its final properties. The green part can be printed in advance using different technologies.They all have in common that metal powder is bound to the desired shape by a binder. The best-known printing technologies include Binder Jetting and Filament Material Extrusion.

In this section, you learn everything about the sinter-based AM  process chain and get an overview of the different printing technologies.

Goal and structure of this course

This course is aimed at engineers, designers and other professionals that are working closely with sinter-based AM technologies. The goal is to cover the most important aspects that will enable engineers and designers to fully grasp the capabilities and technical limitations of the printing technologies and the sintering process to succeed in technology selection and part design. Besides going through the course from the beginning until the end, this course can also act as a constant source of knowledge while working on AM projects. 

The course is structured into the following sections.

This section will start with an overview of the sinter-based AM process chain and its printing technologies, followed by a technology deep dive into the most important aspects of the BJT technology, followed by a closer look at the debinding and sintering step also including sintering simulation .

The second section will provide an overview of the different materials that are available as well as part characteristics that can be achieved with the BJT process and typical methods for quality assurance. Finally, several common defects in the BJT process are presented. 

The last section will act as a guideline for designers. Besides generally describing the process when designing for Additive Manufacturing, actionable restrictions and guidelines for the BJT process are provided. The final section will present several design examples from different industries. 

What you will find in this section

Sinter-based AM process chain

From digital model to finished part

Data preparation

Simulation to compensate the deformation during the sintering step, nesting of parts and definition of printing parameters

Printing

Through various printing processes, different feedstocks such as metal powders, filaments, pellets or dispersions are processed into green parts

Unpacking

Unpacking of fragile green parts needs to be done carefully and is typically a manual process.

Debinding

Debinding describes the process of removing the binder which results in a brown part

Sintering

To reach the structural integrity of a metal part, a sinter process is required. The powder particles fuse together to a coherent, solid structure via a mass transport that occurs at the atomic scale driven via diffusional forces.

The brown part shrinks ~13-21 % in each direction.

The process chain of sinter-based technologies differs from other AM Technologies. Especially the post-printing processes (debinding and sintering) are crucial to achieve the intended mechanical properties.

Technology principle

How does Binder Jetting work?

Binder Jetting is a powder based Additive Manufacturing technology in which a liquid polymer binder is selectively deposited onto the powder bed binding the metal particles and forming a green body.

The metal powder is applied to a build platform in a typical layer thickness of 40 µm to 100 µm. Subsequently a modified 2D print head apply a binder selectively onto the powder bed. Depending on machine technology a hardening or curing process of the binder is performed in parallel for each layer and/or at the end of the whole build. During the in-situ curing process a heat source is used to solidify the binder and form a solid polymer – metal powder composite.

Working Principle of Binder Jetting

Afterwards the build platform moves downward by the amount of one layer thickness and a new layer of powder is applied. Again, the liquid binder is deposited and hardened in the required regions of the next layer to form the green body. This process is repeated until the complete part is printed. After the complete printing process is finished the parts have to be removed from the “powder cake” meaning the surrounding loose but densified powder. To improve the removal of the excess powder from the green body often brushes or a blasting gun with air pressure are used.

To create a dense metal part the 3D printed green body has to be post-processed in a debinding and sintering process. Similar to the metal injection molding process BJT parts are placed in a high temperature furnace, where the binder is burnt out and the remaining metal particles are sintered together. The sintering results in densification of the 3D printed green body to a metal part with high densities of 97 % to 99,5%, dependent of the material.

Printing Technologies

Metal Binder Jetting

Binder Jetting is a powder based Additive Manufacturing technology in which a liquid polymer binder is selectively deposited onto the powder bed binding the metal particles and forming a green body.

The metal powder is applied to a build platform in a typical layer thickness of 40 µm to 100 µm. Subsequently a modified 2D print head apply a binder selectively onto the powder bed. Depending on machine technology a hardening or curing process of the binder is performed in parallel for each layer and/or at the end of the whole build. During the in-situ curing process a heat source is used to solidify the binder and form a solid polymer – metal powder composite.

Working Principle of Binder Jetting

Material Extrusion

Binder Jetting is a powder based Additive Manufacturing technology in which a liquid polymer binder is selectively deposited onto the powder bed binding the metal particles and forming a green body.

The metal powder is applied to a build platform in a typical layer thickness of 40 µm to 100 µm. Subsequently a modified 2D print head apply a binder selectively onto the powder bed. Depending on machine technology a hardening or curing process of the binder is performed in parallel for each layer and/or at the end of the whole build. During the in-situ curing process a heat source is used to solidify the binder and form a solid polymer – metal powder composite.

Working Principle of Binder Jetting

Mold Slurry Deposition

Binder Jetting is a powder based Additive Manufacturing technology in which a liquid polymer binder is selectively deposited onto the powder bed binding the metal particles and forming a green body.

The metal powder is applied to a build platform in a typical layer thickness of 40 µm to 100 µm. Subsequently a modified 2D print head apply a binder selectively onto the powder bed. Depending on machine technology a hardening or curing process of the binder is performed in parallel for each layer and/or at the end of the whole build. During the in-situ curing process a heat source is used to solidify the binder and form a solid polymer – metal powder composite.

Working Principle of Binder Jetting

Metal Selective Laser Sintering

Binder Jetting is a powder based Additive Manufacturing technology in which a liquid polymer binder is selectively deposited onto the powder bed binding the metal particles and forming a green body.

The metal powder is applied to a build platform in a typical layer thickness of 40 µm to 100 µm. Subsequently a modified 2D print head apply a binder selectively onto the powder bed. Depending on machine technology a hardening or curing process of the binder is performed in parallel for each layer and/or at the end of the whole build. During the in-situ curing process a heat source is used to solidify the binder and form a solid polymer – metal powder composite.

Working Principle of Binder Jetting